There are three main types of elections in the Southern Arc Islands: presidential elections, general elections and district elections.

Presidential elections are held every four years, and currently in years which are multiples of four. These use a nationwide vote to elect the President of the Southern Arc Islands.

General elections and district elections are held simultaneously every two years, and currently in odd-numbered years. The general elections are nationwide, and use a party-list proportional system to elect the members of the Second Chamber. The district elections consist of separate first-past-the-post elections for each of the districts of the Southern Arc Islands (including the subdistricts of the independent cities), and elect one representative per district/subdistrict to the First Chamber.